# Functionality Extension Guidelines¶

The main purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of different ways to implement user-specific routines, solvers or preconditioners to the rocALUTION library package. Additional features can be added in multiple ways. Additional solver and preconditioner functionality that uses already implemented backend functionality will perform well on accelerator devices without the need for expert GPU programming knowledge. Also, users that are not interested in using accelerators will not be confronted with HIP and GPU related programming tasks to add additional functionality.

In the following sections, different levels of functionality enhancements are illustrated. These examples can be used as guidelines to extend rocALUTION step by step with your own routines. Please note, that user added routines can also be added to the main GitHub repository using pull requests.

## LocalMatrix Functionlity Extension¶

In this example, the `LocalMatrix`

class is extended by an additional routine.
The routine shall support both, Host and Accelerator backend.
Furthermore, the routine requires the matrix to be in CSR format.

### API Enhancement¶

To make the new routine available by the API, we first need to modify the `LocalMatrix`

class.
The corresponding header file local_matrix.hpp is located in src/base/.
The new routines can be added as public member function, e.g.

```
...
void ConvertTo(unsigned int matrix_format, int blockdim);
void MyNewFunctionality(void);
virtual void Apply(const LocalVector<ValueType>& in, LocalVector<ValueType>* out) const;
virtual void ApplyAdd(const LocalVector<ValueType>& in,
...
```

For the implementation of the new API function, it is important to know where this functionality will be available. To add support for any backend and matrix format, format conversions are required, if MyNewFunctionality() is only supported for CSR matrices. This will be subject to the API function implementation:

```
template <typename ValueType>
void LocalMatrix<ValueType>::MyNewFunctionality(void)
{
// Debug logging
log_debug(this, "LocalMatrix::MyNewFunctionality()");
#ifdef DEBUG_MODE
// If we are in debug mode, perform an additional matrix sanity check
this->Check();
#endif
// If no non-zero entries, do nothing
if(this->GetNnz() > 0)
{
// As we want to implement our function only for CSR, we first need to convert
// the matrix to CSR format
unsigned int format = this->GetFormat();
int blockdim = this->GetBlockDimension();
this->ConvertToCSR();
// Call the corresponding base matrix implementation
bool err = this->matrix_->MyNewFunctionality();
// Check its return type
if((err == false) && (this->is_host_() == true))
{
// If our matrix is on the host, the function call failed.
LOG_INFO("Computation of LocalMatrix::MyNewFunctionality() failed");
this->Info();
FATAL_ERROR(__FILE__, __LINE__);
}
// Run backup algorithm on host, in case the accelerator version failed
if(err == false)
{
// Move matrix to host
bool is_accel = this->is_accel_();
this->MoveToHost();
// Try again
if(this->matrix_->MyNewFunctionality() == false)
{
LOG_INFO("Computation of LocalMatrix::MyNewFunctionality() failed");
this->Info();
FATAL_ERROR(__FILE__, __LINE__);
}
// On a successful host call, move the data back to the accelerator
// if initial data was on the accelerator
if(is_accel == true)
{
// Print a warning, that the algorithm was performed on the host
// even though the initial data was on the device
LOG_VERBOSE_INFO(2, "*** warning: LocalMatrix::MyNewFunctionality() was performed on the host");
this->MoveToAccelerator();
}
}
// Convert the matrix back to CSR format
if(format != CSR)
{
// Print a warning, that the algorithm was performed in CSR format
// even though the initial matrix format was different
LOG_VERBOSE_INFO(2, "*** warning: LocalMatrix::MyNewFunctionality() was performed in CSR format");
this->ConvertTo(format, blockdim);
}
}
#ifdef DEBUG_MODE
// Perform additional sanity check in debug mode, because this is a non-const function
this->Check();
#endif
}
```

Similarly, host-only functions can be implemented. In this case, initial data explicitly need to be moved to the host backend by the API implementation.

The next step is the implementation of the actual functionality in the `BaseMatrix`

class.

### Enhancement of the BaseMatrix class¶

To make the new routine available in the base class, we first need to modify the `BaseMatrix`

class.
The corresponding header file base_matrix.hpp is located in src/base/.
The new routines can be added as public member function, e.g.

```
...
virtual bool ILU0Factorize(void);
/// Perform MyNewFunctionality algorithm
virtual bool MyNewFunctionality(void);
/// Perform LU factorization
...
```

We do not implement MyNewFunctionality() purely virtual, as we do not supply an implementation for all base classes.
We decided to implement it only for CSR format, and thus need to return an error flag, such that the `LocalMatrix`

class is aware of the failure and can convert it to CSR.

```
template <typename ValueType>
bool MyNewFunctionality(void)
{
return false;
}
```

#### Platform-specific Host Implementation¶

So far, our new function will always fail, as there is no backend implementation available yet. To satisfy the rocALUTION host backup philosophy, we need to make sure that there is always a host implementation available. This host implementation need to be placed in src/base/host/host_matrix_csr.cpp as we decided to make it available for CSR format.

```
...
virtual bool ILUTFactorize(double t, int maxrow);
virtual bool MyNewFunctionality(void);
virtual void LUAnalyse(void);
...
```

```
template <typename ValueType>
bool HostMatrixCSR<ValueType>::MyNewFunctionality(void)
{
// Place some asserts to verify sanity of input data
// Our algorithm works only for squared matrices
assert(this->nrow_ == this->ncol_);
assert(this->nnz_ > 0);
// place the actual host based algorithm here:
// for illustration, we scale the matrix by its inverse diagonal
for(int i = 0; i < this->nrow_; ++i)
{
int row_begin = this->mat_.row_offset[i];
int row_end = this->mat_.row_offset[i + 1];
bool diag_found = false;
ValueType inv_diag;
// Find the diagonal entry
for(int j = row_begin; j < row_end; ++j)
{
if(this->mat_.col[j] == i)
{
diag_found = true;
inv_diag = static_cast<ValueType>(1) / this->mat_.val[j];
}
}
// Our algorithm works only with full rank
assert(diag_found == true);
// Scale the row
for(int j = row_begin; j < row_end; ++j)
{
this->mat_.val[j] *= inv_diag;
}
}
return true;
}
```

#### Platform-specific HIP Implementation¶

We can now add an additional implementation for the HIP backend, using HIP programming framework. This will make our algorithm available on accelerators and rocALUTION will not switch to the host backend on function calls anymore. The HIP implementation needs to be added to src/base/hip/hip_matrix_csr.cpp in this case.

```
...
virtual bool ILU0Factorize(void);
virtual bool MyNewFunctionality(void);
virtual bool ICFactorize(BaseVector<ValueType>* inv_diag = NULL);
...
```

```
template <typename ValueType>
bool HIPAcceleratorMatrixCSR<ValueType>::MyNewFunctionality(void)
{
// Place some asserts to verify sanity of input data
// Our algorithm works only for squared matrices
assert(this->nrow_ == this->ncol_);
assert(this->nnz_ > 0);
// Enqueue the HIP kernel
hipLaunchKernelGGL((kernel_csr_mynewfunctionality),
dim3((this->nrow_ - 1) / this->local_backend_.HIP_block_size + 1),
dim3(this->local_backend_.HIP_block_size),
0,
0,
this->mat_.row_offset,
this->mat_.col,
this->mat_.val);
// Check for HIP execution error before successfully returning
CHECK_HIP_ERROR(__FILE__, __LINE__);
return true;
}
```

The corresponding HIP kernel should be placed in src/base/hip/hip_kernels_csr.hpp.

## Adding a Solver¶

In this example, a new solver shall be added to rocALUTION.

### API Enhancement¶

First, the API for the new solver must be defined.
In this example, a new `IterativeLinearSolver`

is added.
To achieve this, the `CG`

is a good template.
Thus, we first copy src/solvers/krylov/cg.hpp to src/solvers/krylov/mysolver.hpp and src/solvers/krylov.cg.cpp to src/solvers/krylov/mysolver.cpp (assuming we add a krylov subspace solvers).

Next, modify the cg.hpp and cg.cpp to your needs (e.g. change the solver name from CG to MySolver). Each of the virtual functions in the class need an implementation.

**MySolver()**: The constructor of the new solver class.**~MySolver()**: The destructor of the new solver class. It should call the Clear() function.**void Print(void) const**: This function should print some informations about the solver.**void Build(void)**: This function creates all required structures of the solver, e.g. allocates memory and sets the backend of temporary objects.**void BuildMoveToAcceleratorAsync(void)**: This function should moves all solver related objects asynchronously to the accelerator device.**void Sync(void)**: This function should synchronize all solver related objects.**void ReBuildNumeric(void)**: This function should re-build the solver only numerically.**void Clear(void)**: This function should clean up all solver relevant structures that have been created using Build().**void SolveNonPrecond_(const VectorType& rhs, VectorType* x)**: This function should perform the solving phase Ax=y without the use of a preconditioner.**void SolvePrecond_(const VectorType& rhs, VectorType* x)**: This function should perform the solving phase Ax=y with the use of a preconditioner.**void PrintStart_(void) const**: This protected function is called upton solver start.**void PrintEnd_(void) const**: This protected function is called when the solver ends.**void MoveToHostLocalData_(void)**: This protected function should move all local solver objects to the host.**void MoveToAcceleratorLocalData_(void)**: This protected function should move all local solver objects to the accelerator.

Of course, additional member functions that are solver specific, can be introduced.

Then, to make the new solver visible, we have to add it to the src/rocalution.hpp header:

```
...
#include "solvers/krylov/cg.hpp"
#include "solvers/krylov/mysolver.hpp"
#include "solvers/krylov/cr.hpp"
...
```

Finally, the new solver must be added to the CMake compilation list, found in src/solvers/CMakeLists.txt:

```
...
set(SOLVERS_SOURCES
solvers/krylov/cg.cpp
solvers/krylov/mysolver.cpp
solvers/krylov/fcg.cpp
...
```